TUFLOW in SMS allows for both automatic and manual manhole settings.
Global manhole attributes can be set up for a TUFLOW simulation in the TUFLOW 1D model control. TUFLOW will then automatically create manholes when the following criteria are met:
- There is at least one incoming and one outgoing culvert—a culvert is a C, I or R channel.
- There are no open channels connected (ie. no bridges, weirs or any other channel that is not a culvert).
- Pit channels can be connected, but are not included in any of the calculations for determining manhole energy losses.
The following global attributes are set:
- Automatic Manholes at All Culvert Junctions – Whether or not to have TUFLOW automatically create manholes.
- Manhole Type – Circular, rectangular, junction, or automatically determined.
- Side Clearance – For circular manholes, the default side clearance from the side of the largest culvert to the side of the manhole chamber. For rectangular manholes, the side clearance from the side of the culvert to the side of the manhole chamber.
- Minimum Dimension – Minimum diameter for circular manholes and minimum width and length for rectangular manholes.
- C Exit Coefficient – K coefficient for flow out of circular manholes.
- R Coefficient – K coefficient for flow out of rectangular manholes.
- Loss Approach – Loss approach to be used (none, Engelhund, Fixed).
- K Maximum Bend/Drop – Maximum K energy loss coefficient that can occur for the sum of the loss coefficients for bends and drops at a manhole when using the Engelhund approach.
The global manhole parameters can be overridden by creating manholes in a TUFLOW 1D Network coverage. Toggling on Manhole and selecting the Manhole Attributes... button in the 1D network Node Attributes dialog allows setting the following parameters for manually created manholes:
- User specified ID – Sets a name for the manhole
- Override global manhole type – Includes options for: "Circular (C)", , "Rectangular (R)", or "No chamber (J)".
- Flow Width – The flow width in meters. This is the diameter for circular manholes.
- Flow Length – The flow length in meters. Not used for circular manholes.
- Override global loss approach – Loss approach to be used. Options include: "None", "Engelhund", or "Fixed".
- K fixed – Set the fixed component of the calculated manhole loss coefficient.
- Override global Km – Exit coefficient used by Engelhund approach.
- Override global K bend/max – Upper limit of the combination of K theta and K drop used by Engelhund approach.
- Additional storage surface area – Usually set to zero.
- Invert – Bottom or bed elevation of manhole.
If a TUFLOW 1D Network coverage has manholes defined, the manholes will be written out as their own layer when exporting TUFLOW files.
SMS – Surface-water Modeling System
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