WMS:Basin HEC-1 Cards

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Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog

When a basin is selected in the HEC-1 model, selecting HEC-1 | Edit Parameters will bring up the Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog with the Basin HEC-1 Cards section active. The following can then be specified:

HEC-1 Basin Data dialog

Basin Data...

Basin Name (KK)

Each hydrograph station should be identified with a unique name. This name appears as part of the KK record for that station in the input file. The name should not be more than six characters long. By default WMS uses the basin ID number followed by a "B" for the name, but a descriptive name is generally more useful.

Basin Area (BA)

When a terrain model is used, basin areas and slopes can be computed automatically using the Compute Basin Data command from the Drainage menu of the TIN or DEM module, or the Update Basin Data command in the Feature Objects menu of the Map module. Otherwise, areas and slopes must be entered interactively using the topological tree as a map. Areas should be entered in either square miles or square kilometers.

Input Hydrograph (QI)

If a hydrograph is known for a given basin, there is no need to compute a synthetic hydrograph. This hydrograph can be input by selecting the check box and then defining the hydrograph using the XY Series Editor.

Precipitation, base flow, loss rates, and unit hydrograph methods for each hydrograph must be specified, regardless of whether or not a TIN is being used, before a complete HEC-1 file can be created. Selecting all of the basins enters data for one or more basins.

NOTE: If no basins are selected, the information entered is applied to all basins.

Base Flow (BF)

Base flow parameters can be defined for a basin by selecting the Enter base flow check box. The input parameters for base flow are as follows:

  • STRTQ – Flow at the start of the storm in cfs (cms for metric units).
  • QRCSN – Flow in cfs (cms) below which base flow recession occurs in accordance with the recession constant RTIOR. In other words, it is that flow where the straight line (in semilog paper) recession deviates from the falling limb of the hydrograph.
  • RTIOR – The ratio of the recession flow (QRCSN) to that flow occurring one hour later (Must be greater than or equal to 1).

Output Control...

HEC-1 Output Control dialog

For each hydrograph station (basin hydrographs, combined hydrographs, and routed hydrographs) different output controls can be specified. This dialog is accessed by selecting the Output Control button from the Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog. Entries which can be defined in this dialog are described below.

Routed and Combined Hydrographs at Outlets

In WMS an outlet point is used to represent locations where hydrographs are both combined and then routed. Therefore, if an outlet is selected before choosing the Output Control dialog, a radio group at the top of the dialog appears to specify whether the options should be applied to the combined or routed hydrograph. If a basin is selected the radio group at the top of the dialog does not appear.

Comment Lines (KM)

Individual comments can be defined for each hydrograph station. These comments can be used to identify unique characteristics about a particular basin or outlet point. A new comment can be defined by selecting the new button in the Output Control dialog and then entering the comment in the text entry. When more than one comment card has been defined, the up and down arrow buttons can be used to scroll through the list of comments for that hydrograph station. When using WMS, comment cards always appear directly after the KK cards for each hydrograph station.

Output Control (KO)

These controls determine what information about a given hydrograph station is written to the HEC-1 ASCII output file. By default the IO record information is used. However, it may be desirable to print out a more (or less) complete summary for individual hydrograph stations.

By default, the option to write a hydrograph to the TAPE22 file is specified. This is the file read by WMS for display of hydrographs. Therefore, this option should only be changed to suppress particular hydrographs.

Precipitation...

HEC-1 Precipitation dialog

Precipitation patterns are assigned to basins by first selecting the appropriate basin(s) and then clicking on the Precipitation button in the Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog. If multiple basins are selected then the defined parameters will apply to all selected basins.

NOTE: If no basins are selected, the parameters can be applied to all basins.

HEC-1 No Precipitation

If no precipitation for a given basin is chosen, then the program will use the precipitation pattern of the most recently defined basin. In other words, if the same precipitation pattern is to be used for each basin, specify precipitation at the upper-most basin and let all other basins "inherit" this same pattern.

Basin Average Precip (PB)

With this method, a time distribution can be entered to create a PI or PC card. The distribution is entered via the XY Series Editor, refer to the article titled XY Series Editor. Several standard storm distributions can be loaded automatically from this editor. In addition, distributions can be saved and later restored from a file. When creating PI or PC records, an IN record needs to be defined to specify the beginning time and date of the storm. WMS computes the values for this IN card based on the first time increment in the precipitation (PI or PC) record defined in the XY Series Editor. Because only one IN card defining the precipitation time increment is defined for each raifall distribution, the precipitation time increments defined for a single rainfall series in the XY Series Editor must all be equal. The time/date parameters entered on the IT card (in the HEC-1 Job Control dialog) are used for the start time/date of the precipitation.

Precipitation Gage (PG)

Gages can be used with or without a terrain model. If drainage basins have been defined using a TIN, the appropriate gage weights (using the Thiessen polygon method) for each basin are automatically computed when the Compute (or Update) Basin Data command is executed. If the HEC-1 model is defined using only the tree, or to change any of the computed values, the gage weights can be changed/assigned by clicking on the gage weights button in the Precipitation dialog. The gage weights dialog will display a list of all defined gages and their station type. Choose from this list when defining gage weights to the selected basin. Storm total stations are written on PT/PW records whereas recording stations are written on PR/PW records. The project must have at least one PR/PW record combination for each basin.

When using a terrain model (DEM, TIN, or Feature Objects) a rain gage coverage can be defined and used to establish the positions of gages by using the graphical creation/selection tools available in the Map module.

Hypothetical Storm (PH)

A hypothetical storm may also be used to define the precipitation pattern for the runoff simulation. The XY Series Editor is used to define the necessary rainfall values for the appropriate times. The storm frequency in percent is entered in the frequency edit field. Rainfall will be converted to an annual-series for fifty, twenty, and ten percent storms. No conversion is made for any other frequency storms. A storm area to be used in computing reduction of point rainfall depths is entered in the area edit field. If 0 is entered for the area then the basin area (or area from JD card for depth/area storms) will be used as a default.

Probable Maximum Precipitation (PM)

Defining precipitation using the probable maximum precipitation option allows for the computation of the probable maximum storm according to the outdated Hydrometeorological Report No. 33 (HMR 33). This does use an outdated method and has been retained in HEC-1 for now in order to be able to reproduce results according to the old HMR 33 method.

The following variables must be defined:

  • PMS – The probable maximum index precipitation from the HMR 33.
  • TRSPC – Precipitation adjustment (between 0 and 1.0) based on drainage area size. If this value is set at zero HEC-1 will default it to the appropriate value based on the HOP Brook Adjustment Factor as described in the HEC-1 manual.
  • TRSDA – The drainage area in square miles for which the storm is transposed.
  • SWD – This value can be set to the EM 1110-2-1411 criteria or the Southwestern Division criteria.
  • R6, R12, R24, R48, R72, R96 – Maximum precipitation at the specified hourly intervals as a percentage of the probable maximum storm. The R48, R72, and R96 values are optional

Loss Method...

HEC-1 Loss Method dialog

One of several different loss methods can be chosen when generating synthetic hydrographs. A loss method is assigned to a basin by first selecting the basin and then choosing the Loss Method button in the Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog. As with other basin data the same parameters can be assigned to several basins by selecting multiple basins before accessing the Loss Method dialog.

When defining a kinematic wave model, it may be necessary to define a separate set of loss parameters for the two different UK records (generally corresponding to pervious and impervious area). This second set of loss parameters is defined from within the Unit Hydrograph Method dialog.

Uniform Loss Method (LU)

This loss method uses an initial value and a uniform value to define infiltration losses. Input parameters are as follows:

  • STRTL – Initial rainfall/snow melt loss in inches (mm) for snow free ground.
  • CNSTL – Uniform rainfall/ loss in inches/hour (mm/hour) which is used after the starting loss (STRTL) has been satisfied.
  • RTIMP – Percentage of drainage basin that is impervious.

Losses (LM)

Losses are used in conjunction with the uniform (LU) or exponential (LE) loss methods. The parameter descriptions are as follows:

  • STRKS – The starting value of the loss coefficient on the exponential recession curve for losses in in/hour (mm/hour) when used with the exponential loss rate (LE) or the uniform melt water loss rate (in/hour) when used with the uniform loss rate (LU).
  • RTIOK – Rate of change of the loss-rate parameter computed as the ratio of STRKS to a value of STRKS after ten inches of accumulated loss when used with the exponential loss rate or not used when using the uniform loss rate.

Exponential Loss (LE)

Parameters for the exponential loss method are as follows:

  • STRKR – The starting value of the loss coefficient on the exponential recession curve for rain losses.
  • DLTKR – The amount in inches (mm) of initial accumulated rain loss during which the loss coefficient is increased.
  • RTIOL – Parameter computed as the ratio of STRKR to a value of STRKR after ten inches (ten mm) of accumulated loss.
  • ERAIN – Exponent of precipitation for rain loss function that reflects the influence of the precipitation rate on basin-average loss characteristics.
  • RTIMP – Percentage of drainage basin that is impervious.

Green & Ampt (LG)

Green-Ampt infiltration loss parameters are as follows:

  • IA – Initial loss (abstraction) in inches (mm).
  • DTHETA – Volumetric moisture deficit. If this value is 0, then the method reduces to the initial loss equal to IA and a constant loss equal to XKSAT.
  • PSIF – Wetting front suction in inches (mm). If this value is 0, then the method reduces to the initial loss equal to IA and a constant loss equal to XKSAT.
  • XKSAT – Hydraulic conductivity at natural saturation in inches/hour (mm/hour).
  • RTIMP – Percentage of drainage basin that is impervious.

Using methods defined by the Maricopa County Flood Control District, Green-Ampt parameters can be determined from GIS data layers automatically in WMS.

Holtan (LH)

Parameters used to define the Holtan loss method:

  • FC – Holtan's long term equilibrium loss rate in inches/hour (mm/hour) for rainfall/losses on snow free ground.
  • GIA – Infiltration rate in inches/hour per inch *BEXP (mm/hour per mm *BEXP) of available soil moisture storage capacity.
  • SAI – Initial depth in inches (mm) of pore space in the surface layer of the soil which is available for storage of infiltrated water.
  • BEXP – Exponent of available soil moisture storage.
  • RTIMP – Percentage of drainage basin that is impervious.

SCS Loss Method (LS)

The SCS curve number method uses the following parameters:

  • STRTL – Initial rainfall abstraction in inches (mm) for snowfree ground. If value is 0, then initial abstraction will be computed as:
0.2* \frac {(1000-10*CRVNBR)}{CRVNBR}.
  • CRVNBR – SCS curve number for rainfall/ losses on snowfree ground.

NOTE: Composite Curve Numbers can be computed automatically when this method for computing losses is chosen and a terrain model is present.

  • RTIMP – Percentage of drainage basin that is impervious.

Unit Hydrograph Method...

HEC-1 Unit Hydrograph Methods dialog

One of several different unit hydrograph methods can be chosen when generating synthetic hydrographs. A method is assigned to a basin by first selecting the basin and then choosing the Unit Hydrograph Method button from the Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog. As with other basin options the same parameters can be assigned to several basins by selecting multiple basins before accessing the Unit Hydrograph Method dialog.

Clark Unit Hydrograph (UC)

The parameters for the Clark method are as follows:

  • TC – Time of concentration in hours for the unit hydrograph. Several different equations exist for determining the time of concentration. The list of basin geometric attributes computed automatically when basins have been delineated from a terrain model can be useful in many of these equations. These attributes can be viewed from within the Unit Hydrograph Method dialog by choosing the View Basin Geometrical Attributes button. Time of concentration can be computed from one of several equations using these attributes, or by using a time computation coverage. These options are accessed from the Compute Parameters – Basin Data and Compute Parameters – Map Data buttons respectively.
  • R – The Clark storage coefficient in hours.
  • TIME AREA CURVE – The time area curve defines the area of the watershed contributing runoff to the basin outlet as a function of time. This curve is defined by selecting the check box and then activating the XY Series Editor with the adjacent button. The time area curve can be computed automatically from a TIN (this method will not work for watersheds delineated from DEMs or Feature Objects) using the Compute Time Area Curves button.

Snyder (US)

Parameters for the Snyder unit hydrograph are as follows:

  • TP – Lag time in hours. Several different equations have been published to determine the lag time of a basin. Many of these use some of the geometric attributes computed automatically when a terrain model is present. These attributes can be viewed by choosing the View Basin Geometrical Attributes button. Lag time can be computed from one of several equations using these attributes, or by using a time computation coverage. These options are accessed from the Compute Parameters – Basin Data and Compute Parameters – Map Data buttons respectively (see Computing Travel Times).
  • CP – Peaking coefficient.
  • TIME AREA CURVE – The time area curve defines the area of the watershed contributing runoff to the basin outlet as a function of time. This curve is defined by selecting the check box and then activating the XY Series Editor with the adjacent button. The time area curve can be computed automatically from a TIN (this method will not work for watersheds delineated from DEMs or Feature Objects) using the Compute Time Area Curves button.

SCS Unit Hydrograph (UD)

Parameters for generating a unit hydrograph using the SCS dimensionless method include:

  • TLAG – SCS lag time in hours. Several different equations have been published to determine the lag time of a basin. Many of these use some of the geometric attributes computed automatically when a TIN is present. Lag time can be computed from one of several equations using these attributes, or by using a time computation coverage. These options are accessed from the Compute Parameters – Basin Data and Compute Parameters – Map Data buttons respectively.

Kinematic Wave (UK)

Distributed outflow from a basin may be obtained by utilizing combinations of three conceptual elements: overland flow planes, collector channels, and a main channel. These elements can be defined if the kinematic wave option is specified.

The first and second kinematic wave records can be used to distinguish between different properties such as pervious/impervious (grass/pavement). For each record, the following parameters can be supplied.

  • L – Overland flow length.
  • S – Representative slope.
  • N – Manning's roughness coefficient.
  • A – Percentage of sub-basins area that this record represents (The total of the two records must sum to 100).
  • Losses – A loss method must be defined for each plane. Choosing the Define Loss button will present the Standard Loss Method dialog and allow a method to be chosen and parameters defined.

In addition to the kinematic wave records, collector channels and a main channel must be defined. Either kinematic wave (RK) or Muskingum-Cunge (RD) routing can be specified by selecting the appropriate radio button. A dialog for defining the channels is accessed by choosing the Define Channels button. The main channel must be defined, whereas the two collector channels are optional. The following parameters are used for each channel:

  • L – Channel length.
  • S – Channel slope.
  • N – Manning's roughness coefficient for the channel.
  • CA – Contributing area to the channel.
  • SHAPE – The characteristic shape of the channel.
  • WD – Channel bottom width or diameter.
  • Z – Side slopes if the channel type requires it.

For the main channel, only an eight point cross section as defined with the RC, RX, RY cards can be used.

A flag for routing upstream hydrographs can be specified for the main channel from within this dialog as well.

Derived Unit Hydrograph (UI)

A given unit hydrograph determined from a separate analysis can be input using the XY Series Editor. The given unit hydrograph must be derived for the same time interval as is specified on the IT record in the Job Control dialog.

Snow Melt Data...

HEC-1 Snow Melt Data dialog

When snow needs to be considered in the runoff analysis, snow melt data for a basin needs to be defined. HEC-1 has two different methods for computing snowfall/melt simulations: the Degree-Day method, and the Energy-Budget.

To define data for a selected basin, choose the Snow Melt Data button from the Edit HEC-1 Parameters dialog. The toggle at the top of the dialog turns snow calculations on. For both methods the elevation or zone data, the coefficients, and temperature data must be defined.

The Degree-Day method is set up once these parameters have been defined. If the Energy-Budget method is toggled on then the Dew point, Short-wave radiation, and Wind speed data must be defined as well. Losses should be defined when either method is used. These losses are used in conjunction with the LU or LE cards for normal basin losses. The check box at the bottom of the dialog allows losses to be turned on or off for a given simulation.

Elevation Zone Data (MA)

Snow computations are accomplished in HEC-1 using separate, equally incremented, elevation zones within each basin. The number of elevation zones for which data must be defined is determined by specifying the base elevation of zone 1 and zone interval in the appropriate edit fields. The default values correspond to the lowest elevation and the range between the highest and lowest elevation (i.e. one elevation zone). More zones can be created by decreasing the interval, or lower elevations can be excluded from calculations by increasing the base elevation. Once the base elevation and interval are set, elevation zone data is defined by choosing the Define MA Data button. The number of zones which need to be defined is automatically determined and the appropriate edit fields are unhighlighted. The elevation zone parameters are as follows:

  • AREA – The drainage area associated with this elevation zone.
  • SNOPACK – The snow pack depth.
  • AVEPRECIP – The normal annual precipitation in inches (mm) for this zone.

Areas for the elevation zones can be computed and supplied automatically using the Compute Areas button. The elevation fields are not part of the HEC-1 input.

Radiation

These three data records (dew point, radiation and wind speed) are only defined for the Energy-Budget method. Like the temperature time series, these three HEC-1 records are defined using the XY Series Editor. Dates for IN records can be specified using the appropriate edit fields and the beginning time and time increment are defined using the XY Options dialog from within the XY Series Editor.

Temperature (MT)

The temperature time series is entered using the XY Series Editor where each value corresponds to the air temperature at the bottom of the lowest elevation zone for that interval. The starting date is determined from the IN record values in the edit fields corresponding to the temperature data. The starting time and time increment (also part of an IN record) are specified in the XY Series Editor using the XY Options dialog.

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